Till startsida
Webbkarta
Till innehåll Läs mer om hur kakor används på gu.se

Disputationer

Via universitetsbibliotekets databas över doktorsavhandlingar kan du söka publicerade doktorsavhandlingar vid Göteborgs högskola/universitet från 1902 och framåt. Databasen innehåller också information om kommande disputationer.

UB:s databas över doktorsavhandlingar

Kommande disputationer

Embodying Openness: A Pragmatist Exploration into the Aesthetic Experience of Design Form-Giving

[2017-06-12] Title: Embodying Openness: A Pragmatist Exploration into the Aesthetic Experience of Design Form-Giving Authors: Ariana, Amacker Abstract: This thesis explores the tension between a reflective view of design and design as an embodied, aesthetic experience. Most research exploring the nature of design follows a tradition of practice-based design research, which aims to empirically establish what constitutes design by studying what designers do and say. The challenge with this observational approach is that it depends on design as an object of study and can therefore only deal with its rational or cognitive dimension. The inherently aesthetic and subjective dimension of the immediate perception of designing remains largely unexplored in design research. To address this lack of research, this project builds on the Classical Pragmatist non-dualistic view of experience and knowledge. In particular, drawing on Dewey’s thesis in Art as Experience, I explore the embodied, aesthetic dimension of design through investigating in detail my experience of the activity of form-giving. This methodological perspective maintains continuity between thinking-feeling in action and in terms of subject-object relations. From this non-dualist view, I critique the specific claim made by researchers and design practitioners who advocate that designers exhibit an attitude of openness that contributes to creativity. Assuming that openness is a quality that can be felt, I ask how this quality is felt in my experience of designing, and what openness means practically with regard to direct sensory and physical engagement and what it conceptually means in the way a designer approaches the world. To explore an integrated experience of designing in the present, I follow an artistic method of movement improvisation called Butoh. Butoh provides a specific context of inquiry for exploring perceptual and physical engagement in the present through a heightened state of somatic awareness. The empirical work is comprised of four direct experiences from my Butoh training that are examined through the lens of Pragmatism and embodied cognition. Together, they show how I actually engage my ‘self’ through concrete sensory, emotional, and feelingful frames of experience of form-giving in the present. This research makes theoretical and methodological contributions through developing an embodied, aesthetic perspective of practice-based and artistic approach to design. It suggests the potential of openness-capacity as a concept for understanding and actually practicing the type of creative approach attributed to a designer’s attitude of openness. It provides a critique of rational mechanisms underlying the contexts of design inquiry, as well as having practical implications for design education and the kinds of teaching and learning that support the creative, self-directed, exploratory capacities of designers.  

Efficient Adaptive Algorithms for an Electromagnetic Coefficient Inverse Problem

[2017-06-08] Title: Efficient Adaptive Algorithms for an Electromagnetic Coefficient Inverse Problem Authors: Malmberg, John Bondestam Abstract: This thesis comprises five scientific papers, all of which are focusing on the inverse problem of reconstructing a dielectric permittivity which may vary in space inside a given domain. The data for the reconstruction consist of time-domain observations of the electric field, resulting from a single incident wave, on a part of the boundary of the domain under consideration. The medium is assumed to be isotropic, non-magnetic, and non-conductive. We model the permittivity as a continuous function, and identify distinct objects by means of iso-surfaces at threshold values of the permittivity. Our reconstruction method is centred around the minimization of a Tikhonov functional, well known from the theory of ill-posed problems, where the minimization is performed in a Lagrangian framework inspired by optimal control theory for partial differential equations. Initial approximations for the regularization and minimization are obtained either by a so-called approximately globally convergent method, or by a (simpler but less rigorous) homogeneous background guess. The functions involved in the minimization are approximated with finite elements, or with a domain decomposition method with finite elements and finite differences. The computational meshes are refined adaptively with regard to the accuracy of the reconstructed permittivity, by means of an a posteriori error estimate derived in detail in the fourth paper. The method is tested with success on simulated as well as laboratory measured data.

Trädgårdsmästarens förökningsmetoder: dokumentation av hantverkskunskap

[2017-05-29] Title: Trädgårdsmästarens förökningsmetoder: dokumentation av hantverkskunskap Authors: Westerlund, Tina Abstract: Plant propagation is craft expertise that has been developed within a gardening tradition in which knowledge has primarily been transferred from one practitioner to another by showing and explaining. When the transfer of knowledge in practice wanes, documentation of working methods can provide support for passing on propagation experiences. But when we try to describe our experiences working with craft-based propagation methods in words alone, a communication problem arises. This thesis is about knowledge and knowledge sharing in the work gardeners do propagating perennials. The aim is to explore the methods for documenting – and communicating – gardeners’ expertise in the vegetative propagation of perennials. By observing gardeners’ working methods in propagation, participating in propagation work at nurseries, analyzing the notes I took on instructions given, and conducting my own gardening experiments I have been able to explore the following general questions: What constitutes the knowledge of an experienced practitioner of plant propagation? How can we understand this knowledge, and how can it be documented in a way that allows it to be conveyed to others systematically? Three different perspectives provided the point of departure for the study: the object-oriented, the practice-oriented, and the subject-oriented perspectives. This approach is based on Bengt Molander’s research on knowledge in action, and on analysis of the theoretical concept’s various orientations. These three perspectives – focusing on object, practice, and subject – have determined the format of the thesis. Their structure is an outcome of the study findings, a categorization system based on the plant parts used in vegetative propagation, reflections on documentation methods and reflections about the function of personal knowledge, situation-specific knowledge and knowledge development in plant propagation practice. The structure with the three perspectives is therefore also an answer to the question of how a gardener’s propagation expertise might be documented.

Developing brain and systemic inflammation: a "Toll-like" link with consequences

[2017-05-24] Title: Developing brain and systemic inflammation: a "Toll-like" link with consequences Authors: Mottahedin, Amin Abstract: The developing brain is vulnerable to external insults, and perinatal brain injury (PBI) is a major cause of life-long neurological syndromes such as cerebral palsy. Currently, no pharmaceutical intervention is available. Hypoxia/ischemia (HI), infections and inflammation are implicated in the pathogenesis of PBI. However, the crosstalk between these etiologies is not fully understood. Toll-like receptors (TLR) 3 and TLR2 are responsible for sensing viral and bacterial infections and initiating the inflammatory response. The aim of this thesis was to investigate the effect of systemic inflammation induced by activation of these TLRs on neonatal HI brain injury. We demonstrate that intraperitoneal administration of TLR3 and TLR2 ligands (PolyI:C and P3C, respectively) prior to HI increases the brain injury in neonatal mice. PolyI:C and P3C induced neuroinflammation and altered microglial phenotype as assessed by RT-qPCR, multiplex cytokine assay or flow cytometry. PolyI:C also upregulated the pro-apoptotic gene, Fasl, expression and reduced activation of pro-survival signaling molecule Akt. On the other hand, P3C suppressed mitochondrial respiration, a major mechanism of cellular energy production. P3C, unlike other TLR agonists, induced marked infiltration of leukocytes to the cerebral spinal fluid and brain of neonatal mice and rats. Confocal microscopy, Cre recombinase-mediated gene targeting and in vitro cell transmigra-tion assay revealed the choroid plexus as a site of leukocyte entry. RNA sequencing of the choroid plexus followed by transcriptome cluster analysis and Ingenuity Pathway Analysis revealed potential mechanisms of leukocyte infiltration, including a specific chemotaxis signature and cytoskeleton-related pathways. Finally, we show that N-acetylcysteine treatment inhibits TLR2-mediated leukocyte trafficking in vivo and in vitro. To conclude, this thesis describe a TLR-mediated link between systemic inflammation and developing brain with detrimental consequences on HI brain injury, suggesting potential novel therapeutic strategies.

Incentives and Forest Reform: Evidence from China

[2017-05-24] Title: Incentives and Forest Reform: Evidence from China Authors: Yi, Yuanyuan Abstract: Chapter I: Forest Devolution Reform in China: A Trigger for Investment or Deforestation? I investigate whether and how the devolution of forestland to households in China triggered investment in forestland, and its effect on forest resource conditions. The investment analysis is based on a panel dataset of a two-round survey of 3,000 households in eight provinces before and after the implementation of the forest devolution reform, while the analysis of resource conditions is based on satellite imagery on forest cover and vegetation during 2001-2012. Using a difference-in-difference propensity score matching model, I find that the devolution reform resulted in more investment, in terms of annual labor input days and value of silvicultural treatments per area unit. At the county level, more forestland devolved to household management is found to improve forest conditions during the time period studied. I also investigate the investment effect through two channels: (i) the effect of tenure security, i.e., holding a forestland certificate and (ii) the reallocation effect from obtaining more forestland resources. The effects of devolution and improved tenure on increased private investment and resource conditions provide evidence that well-defined and protected property rights for households offer an effective alternative to common-pool resources management in small-scale forestry in China. Chapter II: Allocative Efficiency or Agglomeration? The Emergence of Forestland Rental Markets and the Forest Devolution Reform in China This paper evaluates whether the devolution reform of forestland to household management had an effect on allocative efficiency and household welfare through participation in forestland rental markets. Using a household panel dataset from three Chinese provinces, I find that the emerging forestland rental markets improved allocative efficiency in terms of factor equalization. With the reform, forestland is transferred to forestland-constrained and labor-rich households, and to households with higher levels of productivity in forestry. I do not find any support for agglomeration of forestland to land-richer, wealthier, larger or powerful households. Participation in forestland rental markets increases household per-capita income and decreases the likelihood of having an income below the poverty line. Chapter III: Managerial Incentives of Environmental Protection in Chinese-Style Federalism China's fast economic growth has come at the expense of environmental quality and the degradation of natural resources such as forests. In this paper, we identify career concerns by managers of state-owned enterprises that manage natural resources, and asymmetric information between managers and their superiors regarding the enterprises' environmental performance, as sources of environmental degradation. A manager of such an enterprise is the agent of two principals: national and sub-national governments. As well as needing to meet ecological targets imposed by the national government, a manager wants to be promoted into the ranks of the sub-national government. We develop three hypotheses based on a theoretical model with two principals and one agent. We then empirically test these hypotheses for the case of China's northeastern state-owned forests, combining satellite imagery data on deforestation with economic survey data. Our findings suggest that managers of state forests that have a larger area and volume, and are thus more difficult to monitor with respect to ecological targets, log more timber and are more likely to deforest. The same holds true for managers who share a larger percentage of profits with the local government. In turn, we find that sharing more revenue with the local government increases the likelihood of getting promoted.

Expression of Tissue Antigens in Human Pluripotent Stem Cells and Alterations During Differentiation

[2017-05-24] Title: Expression of Tissue Antigens in Human Pluripotent Stem Cells and Alterations During Differentiation Authors: Karin, Säljö Abstract: The major limiting factor in the treatment of patients with end-stage organ failure is the insufficient number of human organs available for transplantation. An unlimited access to human cells, tissues and organs would also open up possibilities to treat several chronic diseases, such as diabetes, neurological and cardiovascular diseases, affecting millions of patients worldwide. Cells and tissues derived from human pluripotent stem cells (hPSC) could potentially fulfill these ambitions. However, there are several biomedical barriers to overcome before this can be a clinical reality. One of the most important concerns is the immunogenicity of the conceivable cell or tissue grafts derived from hPSC when exposed to a non-self recipient. This thesis explores the expression of immunogenic tissue HLA and blood group antigens in several hPSC cell lines and their derivatives. This characterization was performed by several complementary analytical techniques, such as flow cytometry, immunohistochemistry, PCR, as well as biochemical characterization of glycosphingolipid molecular structures and protein bound antigen composition. The results demonstrate that pluripotent stem cells express various cell surface immunodeterminants including HLA, AB(O)H and related histo-blood group antigens. Moreover, we identified significant alterations of antigen expression patterns during endodermal, mesodermal and ectodermal differentiation. Consequently, our results indicate that all hPSC-derived cells intended for clinical applications should be characterized regarding their individual tissue antigen profile in accordance with the standard selection criteria used in allotransplantation. Furthermore, we identified a novel cell surface marker of undifferentiated stem cells, sialyl-lactotetra, which can be used as a verification and selection tool for pluripotency, as well as a potential exclusion measure in heterogeneously differentiated cell cultures to prevent tumor formation. In conclusion, this thesis adds new knowledge regarding cell surface antigen expression in hPSC of relevance both for basic science and for future clinical applications within transplantation and regenerative medicine.

Ungdomars argumentation : om argumentationstekniker i gruppsamtal /

[2017-05-23] Title: Ungdomars argumentation : om argumentationstekniker i gruppsamtal / Authors: Wirdenäs, Karolina,

Children and adolescents with externalizing behavior in dental care

[2017-05-22] Title: Children and adolescents with externalizing behavior in dental care Authors: Staberg, Marie Abstract: Aim: To study children/adolescents with externalizing behavior and a subgroup diagnosed ADHD, regarding oral health, oral health behavior, and the parents' evaluation on their child’s oral health and dental experience. Patients and Methods: Study Groups 1 & 2 consisted of families of 228 children (10-13 years), who participated in a parental training program. The parents answered the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire, Disruptive Behavior Disorder Rating Scale, Parental Knowledge and Monitoring Scale, and Family Warmth and Family Conflict, and evaluated the child's oral health and dental care. The children estimated dental fear via CFSS-DS and indicated diet and tooth brushing habits. Data, from dental records concerning caries, caries risks, dental injuries, dental fear, and behavior management problems, were compared to a control group. The study group was divided into low and elevated caries risk. Behavioral characteristics and family structure were studied. Study Group 3 consisted of families of children/adolescents with ADHD, 5-19 years of age, from the Child Neuropsychiatric Clinic in Gothenburg. The parents filled out forms regarding dental care, oral hygiene, and dietary habits. Dental records on dental care, caries, and dental injuries were obtained. Results: There was no difference in caries prevalence in children/adolescents with externalizing behavior, compared to controls. Children/adolescents with ADHD showed a high caries prevalence, compared with data from Region of Västra Götaland (RVG). There were more children with an elevated risk of caries among the children with externalizing behavior, compared to children in RVG. These children with an elevated caries risk showed higher levels of conduct problems, hyperactivity and impulsivity, compared to children with low caries risk. It was more common for children with externalizing behavior and children with ADHD to brush their teeth less than twice a day. Both of these groups of children preferred sweet drinks when thirsty. Children with externalizing behavior and children with ADHD had a high prevalence of dental injuries. There were no differences regarding the parents' assessment of oral health in the children with externalizing behavior, compared to controls. There was no difference regarding the parents' evaluation of dental care for the children with externalizing behavior, compared to controls. These children with an elevated caries risk had a higher risk of developing dental fear. Few parents of children/adolescents with ADHD perceived their child as having dental fear. The parents of children/adolescents with ADHD experienced shortcomings regarding neuropsychiatric knowledge, treatment, and patience from dental staff. Conclusions: Children with externalizing behavior, and children diagnosed ADHD, exhibited differences in oral health and had an increased risk behavior.

Physiological role of amyloid precursor protein during neural development

[2017-05-22] Title: Physiological role of amyloid precursor protein during neural development Authors: Banote, Rakesh Kumar Abstract: Amyloid precursor protein (APP) is a type-one membrane-spanning protein with a large extracellular N-terminal domain and a small intracellular C-terminal domain. APP first gained interest due to its involvement in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Its proteolytic processing liberates the neurotoxic amyloid-beta (Aβ) peptide that accumulates in the amyloid plaques, characteristic of AD. Thus, APP has been intensively studied for its amyloidogenic properties with less focus on its normal cell biological roles. APP is an evolutionarily conserved protein involved in biological processes including neuronal migration, synaptogenesis, synaptic function and plasticity. Still, it is unclear what role APP plays in the development of specific neuronal cell types in the central nervous system. The aim of this thesis was to examine the physiological functions of the zebrafish Appb, a highly conserved homologue of human APP, during neural development. Through a knockdown approach, we found that Appb is required for the patterning and outgrowth of motor neurons in the spinal cord as well as for the synapse formation at the neuromuscular junction (NMJ), thus essential for the formation of normal locomotor behavior. We also show the cell-specific utility of Appb in the hindbrain-specific Mauthner cell (M-cell) development that our data indicate is mediated through a Notch1adependent mechanism. To confirm the function of Appb we generated an appb mutant carrying a homozygous non-sense mutation in exon 2. Although the smaller size of mutants was similar to morphants, mutants appeared morphologically normal after 48 hours post-fertilization (hpf), suggesting that the genetic deficit is compensated for, potentially by other App family members or by modifications of other genes, such as Notch. Lastly, to get a deeper insight into molecular pathways regulated by Appb, we determined the proteomic consequence of Appb downregulation and provided crucial information on proteins and pathways that are differently expressed when the expression of Appb is modulated. In summary, we report on an essential role of Appb during neural development in the spinal cord and hindbrain and provide a link between Appb and other proteins and pathways. We believe that the zebrafish model used here provided appreciable knowledge in gaining insights into APP function and that the described studies above will significantly contribute to our understanding of this complex protein during neural development.

Converging Human and Digital Bodies. Posthumanism, Property, Law.

[2017-05-22] Title: Converging Human and Digital Bodies. Posthumanism, Property, Law. Authors: Käll, Jannice Abstract: This thesis elaborates a theory for understanding how advanced capitalism commoditizes knowledge to an intensified degree simultaneously as it undoes the divide between human and nonhuman beings. In the text, such theory visibilizes how human and digital bodies are being produced as increasingly connected in innovation theory and recent business practices. Such increased connectivity between human and digital bodies is here specifically related to an obfuscation of the legal conceptual divides between “the human” and property. It is further suggested that a clouding of the property limit may be understood to challenge the generally assumed exclusivity of “the human” in relation to “things”. The thesis engages in making the convergences between human and digital bodies visible through developing a posthumanist theoretical perspective in law. This development is specifically connected to the recent years’ developments in the field of new materialism(s) and its affiliations to the so-called French readings of the philosopher Baruch Spinoza. The theoretical interest is particularly configured into three tools: body, entanglement, and ethics. These three tools are utilized to visibilize how legal concepts of property are significantly affiliated with two theoretical binaries that are put into question through advanced capitalist practices and digital technologies. The binaries specifically identified and interrogated are: mind/body and person/thing. The concept of the body is here utilized to question the stability of boundaries between human and digital bodies. The porousness of this boundary is particularly visibilized in relation to the production of digital bodies as separate from human bodies. The concept of entanglement further shows how processes of separation are never fully enacted. This is made visible through processes of turning both human and digital bodies into “hybrids” or entangled bodies. The concept of ethics furthermore stresses the importance to continuously move the understanding of matter in a direction where bodies, in a more posthumanist sense, may remain in their being. This implies a focus on radical sustainability that avoids yet cherishes technological encounters. As argued throughout the thesis, this type of ethics may be carried out through a radical opening of property, as well as law in general, in relation to their always-already apparent, yet hidden, materialities. This opening up to matter also further makes possible a rethinking of human subjectivity when human and digital bodies converge.

Böcker
Sidansvarig: Webbredaktionen|Sidan uppdaterades: 2008-01-30
Dela:

På Göteborgs universitet använder vi kakor (cookies) för att webbplatsen ska fungera på ett bra sätt för dig. Genom att surfa vidare godkänner du att vi använder kakor.  Vad är kakor?